Universal Truth begins with geometry, algebra, and numbers.











The First Postulate: ". . . Something Moves."
as clearly stated by Albert Einstein's quote,
"Nothing happens until something moves."

Thus, The Universe, a Singularity with many Worlds.

Contact Information

Criticism and Questions of any kind are invited.


Science, Theology, and Philosophy,
which is a requirement for describing
the congruent locus of:
the infinitesimal and the infinite; and/or,
the Universe and the Singularity.

Philogic is considered as
the Ultimate Gedanken;
and, can be considered as
Ultimate Relativity.

There can be no "Theory of Everything" (ToE)
without a First Postulate that is consistent
with Philogic
where Philosophical Logic,
 in search of truth, goes beyond Observation

 Such can be "simply" described as:

  "The simplest is the most complex; and,                        
                                     the most complex is the simplest."

~Brunardot,  March 24, 1955                                                    



This treatise concerning Philogic is dedicated to:

Murray Gell-Mann and Steven Weinberg

who both well understand that there cannot be a
complete understanding of theoretical physics
without involving Philosophy, which is beyond
science's axioms, observation, and quantification



Philip Morrison

who sought Peace for mankind
after helping to build the "Bomb"
and later, in 1955, pointed the way toward
the universal First Postulate with a
 Ludwig Prandtl reference to a
Carl Anton Bjerknes'
"hydrodynamic action at a distance" experiment

as described by his son Vilhelm in 1903

Beauty is complexity
reduced to simplicity . . . and, the
perpetual evolution of simplicity to complexity.

From simplicity beyond the infinitesimal
to complexity at the infinite; such is
Infinite Dynamics where
simplicity and complexity are congruent;
thus, the First Postulate of Ultimate Relativity.


Infinity's Duality
From simplicity beyond the infinitesimal
to complexity at the infinite

 ~Continue Scrolling Down~


Academia wonders why
Mathematical concepts
        define Nature.  They do not !
Because: Nature defines ALL base 10 Numbers
                 and all their mathematical manipulations.



Any straight line that intersects    
     another straight line of different
          length begins the unraveling of
               all Nature's enigmas of              
                    Reality .  .  .  and beyond.     

                                             May 28, 2005


  Why the Inverse Square Law?

Why Pauley's Exclusion Principle?

Why Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle?

Why Quintessence?  Why Entanglement?

Why The EPR Paradox?

Why Localization?

Why E=mc2?

Why is the
Cosmic Inflation theory dubious?
Which theory is the
basis for the isotropic
Cosmic Microwave Background.

What is the origin and composition of
Gravitational Waves?

What was the Big Bang within
when it banged?  Did it bang . . .?

What is the Physics of Electrons?

How the Duality of Infinity
defines the locus of a
singular, perpetual Universe.

The Infinite and the Infinitesimal
have the identical locus.

Why is the scale of Numbers defined by
the Natural Function, x2 - x?
Thus, the series 1, 2, 3, 4...
and, the series 0, -1, -2, -3...
are equivalent.
Thus, 1 and 0 are equivalent;
and, therefore, it can be deduced,
the Infinite and the Infinitesimal
are equivalent.

Why is the speed of Light neither
constant nor limited?

Why is gravity's speed
without limit?

A First Postulate
of ultimate Natural truth
must exhibit utmost complexity
concomitantly with utmost simplicity;
elegantly understandable . . . beauty.

What do numbers indicate about:
Where we came from?
Where we are going?
And, most importantly,
how should we behave in-between?


How a line or two with
a bit of beginning
geometry and algebra
understand the most illusive enigmas of
Science, Theology, and Philosophy
that are all
currently mired and obfuscated
with metaphysical axioms
 and very little philosophic logic.

Therefore, illustrating the importance of
a symbolic understanding of
Zero, One, and Infinity.

the First Postulate.


A challenge is issued to academe to:

     1.) Offer a better explanation than 
Pulsoid Theory for the current enigmas that result from the irreconcilability of the current Standard Models of physics;

     2.) Find an error in the mathematics or logic of 
Pulsoid Theory, as presented, that would disqualify it as a leading candidate for a Theory of Everything;

     3.) Debate that current theoretical physics is based upon other than:
          a.) Forces/interactions that, as defined by Standard Models, are
                entirely metaphysical;
          b.) Time that is undefined; and, c.) mathematics that is "incomplete";

     4.) Debate that the 
Elliptical Constant does not underlie:
          a.) the definition of 
fundamental, intrinsic time (FIT);
          b.) The ellipsoidal form of fundamental quanta;
          c.) The 
Natural geometric source of numbers . . . including
Proof of One within any given Natural system.

Or, more simply, disprove that there is not an Elliptical Constant, for any elliptical shape, that is not related to, or analogous to, the Planck Constants. That is: more simply, demonstrate that the Elliptical Constant is not the Rosetta Stone that underlies a rationalization for all the phenomena of everything that exists; as well as, demonstrating the logic for the radius of Infinity.

Since May 1955 no physicist "of stature" from academe has accepted a public debate, or a private debate, with an eclectic group of scholars, concerning the mathematical, philosophical, or scientific premises of Pulsoid Theory. During the intervening years, since 1955, many of the contentious arguments that have been offered as provocations for such debate have, themselves, become part of mainstream, intellectual, academic, theoretical acceptance.

To avoid conceding a point made concerning the mass of neutrinos, long argued with Fred Reines, the standard definition of the ephemeral neutrino "particle" was quietly changed by academe just before the death of Fred Reines when he became a Nobel Laureat. In similar manner, the ludicrous definition of black holes, also, appears to be morphing. Also, no longer, soon after the 1990 launching of the Hubble space telescope (HST), do astronomers dismiss accelerating, galactic recession; nor, do cosmologists now refute the possibility of "dark" energy and "dark" matter.

Despite observation and logic to the contrary, the mass media, trade media, scientific journals, and many world-class scientists still speak of massive black holes at the center of galaxies and elsewhere as fact without disclaimers to the contrary stating that: black holes are theoretical. The impression that infinitesimal black holes abound is about as common an accepted understanding as are the tenets of Christianity.

Theoretical physics is constrained with its acceptance of the Big Bang as a Standard Model. Cosmology, if not all of physics, is irreconcilable until an alternative, structural force that opposes gravity's illusion of "attraction-at-a-distance" replaces the Big Bang concept of centripetal forces; thus as it is, the compressive force of dark matter and dark energy must be a requirement as the reactive force to Cosmic Inertia rather than the "Voodoo attraction" of "common gravity."

Recently, the Nobel Prize was shared (October 3, 2006) for strong verification of George Gamov's "Big Bang"; yet, no academic astrophysicist can explain how one "bang" created the acceleration that was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope more than a decade earlier, concerning galactic recession.

Nor, do many post modern physicists bother to speculate, as Sir Fred Hoyle did in 1955, about: What is the vessel that contained the Big Bang?

Pulsoid Theory is a philosophy of ultimate reduction, Philogic, that depends upon rigorous logic and definitions; reconciliation with both scientific observation and most of prior physical theory; and, most importantly, Pulsoid Theory is understandable by most laypersons. As such, Pulsoid Theory is truly . . . a Paradigm Shift!


A response to “A Challenge to Academe” could take the form of disproving the following argument and statement:

The mathematical descriptions, of the harmonies and resonances of motion, described by Pulsoid Theory, that heuristically describe the ellipsoidal geometry of “string-like” oscillating phenomena, are applicable to establishing fundamental concepts that can resurrect the much maligned string theory and its derivations; as well as, reinforcing the concepts of loop quantum gravity theories of “space.”

Pulsoid Theory (PT) more than unifies the Standard Model forces; PT reconciles the observable, fundamental concepts of Relativity (SR & GR); Quantum Theory (QT); Quantum Electrodynamics (QED); Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD); Super Symmetry (SUSY); String Theory (ST); Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG); Quintessence; Infinity; Quantum Entanglement; Number Theory (NT); spin; and, accelerating, galactic recession; and, likely the most significant: PT should end all speculation as to the calendar age and
the locus of the single, perpetual Universe.



There can be little philosophical logic
within any academic discipline until Kurt Gödel's
"Incompleteness Theorems"
are disproved.

A simplification of said Gödel Incompleteness theorems
is that within the set of all numbers the value of "One"
must come from outside said set.

Following, is a simple proof that Kurt Gödel's
"Incompleteness Theorems"
are . . . incomplete.

Or, that the value of One can be determined
within any mathematical discipline
... and/or... the Natural System that is
fundamental to all the Laws of Nature.

The Proof of One is found within all ellipses
. . . which ellipses are found, fundamentally,
within all that exists.

The object is to determine
the value of "One" (
e) for the simplest of
two-dimensional systems
(plane geometry and/or Set of all numbers) of
different value lines as symbolized by
any two-dimensional, non-parallel lines,
within the same plane
as illustrated above.

More complex systems such as
spherical trigonometry, philosophy, Nature, etc.
can be ultimately reduced to the simplicity of
the two-dimensional separation
[Seminal Energy (SE) of
a one-dimensional point within
a dimensionless sphere (DES)

Draw two Straight Lines FX and YZ,
in the same plane,
that are not parallel;
and, are of different length
that intersect at Point D.

The longer line is Line FX
The shorter line is Line YZ

Lines FX and YZ comprise a simple system
which can be of any number for which the value of
"ONE" will be determined from within said system.


Slide Lines FX and YZ to Point D
such that Line DF equals Line FX
and Line DZ equals Line YZ
and Angle DFZ remains unchanged.


Construct a circular Arc UV
with a Radius DZ
that intersects the longer Line DF
at point W.

Let Line FW = e = One = 1
Let Line DZ = 2(x2-x)
Therefore, Line DW = 2(x2-x)

The Problem is to prove that
x can be any number
in the Set of All Numbers.
i.e. Line DW, 2(x2-x)/
e is an integer.



Draw Line EF from Point F to Point E
such that Line EF is tangent to Arc UV
at Point E.


From Point E
construct a circular Arc ET
with Radius EF.

Draw an extension of Line DF
to Arc ET at point S.



Draw Line DE

 Angle DEF by definition is a Right Angle

(In Euclidean plane geometry,
a tangent line to a circle...at the tangent point
is perpendicular to the radius to that point.

Thus, the Pythagorean Theorem,

a little geometry, and algebra
resolves that Line EF equals 2x-

Line EF2 = Line DF2 - Line DE2
EF2 = (2(x2 - x) +
e)2 (2(x2 -  x)) 2

Expand Terms:
EF2 = (4x4 - 8x3 + 8x2 - 4x +
e) - (4x4 - 8x3 + 4x2)

Combine Terms:

EF2 = 4x2 - 4x +

Factor Terms:
EF2 = (x2 - e)(x2 - e)

Therefore, the square root of each side gives:
Line EF = x2 - e

At Point C, the mid-point of Line DE,
construct a Centerline perpendicular to Line DE.

onstruct a circular Arc PQ from Point D
through Point R, the mid-point of Line DS,
that intersects said Centerline at point G.

Line DS equals 2x2.

DS = 2x2 - 2x + e + 2x - e
Combine Terms:
DS = 2x2

Draw Line DG that equals 1/2 Line DS.

Thus, Line DG = x2.


  Construct a circular Arc OC from Point C,
with Radius DC, that intersects
Line DG at point N.

Line DO equals Line DC.

Thus, Line OP equals x.

  Epsilon equals e
The Construction of
e, which as a number,
is equivalent to Gödel's "unprovable" One,
and is found within all ellipses;
which ellipses, as dynamic ellipsoids,
are the primal structure of all that exists; and,
said ellipsoids represents the set of ALL numbers
from the infinitesimal to the infinite.

All fundamental oscillations are
heuristically symbolized
by the Salient Structural Parts of said ellipsoids.

In fact, as the primal structure,
the ellipsoid is the genesis of all phenomena.

Let Line GN  = x   
Then, Line DG  = x

Thus, Line DO and Line DC = x2 - x

Line DE and Line DW= 2(x2 - x)

Let Line FW =
e = One = 1


Line DF = 2x2 - 2x + e

Triangle DEF is a Right Triangle.

Thus, in accordance with

2(Line DE) + b2(Line EF) = c2(Line DF),

(2x2 - 2x)2 + (2x - 1)2 = (2x2 - 2x + 1)2
Expand and consolidate

Therefore, Line EF = 2x - e

Whatever value is assigned to "x",
e = One,
a non-ratio constant
that is uniquely constant for any system of
two arbitrary non-equal, non-parallel lines
that are in the same plane.
  Epsilon equals One can be easily proven by
letting x be
ANY integer greater than One.

The result will always be that
Triangle DEF is a Right Triangle;
and, therefore:

e, equals One.

the value of One has been established
for a system from within a system (Set) of all numbers
that disproves the salient crux of
Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.


It is the phenomena that
One is provable
that makes Philogically possible

ALL that exists within Reality,
which is demonstrated by
Brunardot's: Emergent Ellipsoids,
First Postulate, and Pulsoids.

For clarity,
remove the following extraneous,
construction Lines and Arcs.

Line FS
Line DZ

Arc ET
Arc EU
Arc PQ
Arc CO

Below are some of the many different,
salient oscillations, symbolized by lines,
which ellipsoidal and spherical loci
are the basis of ALL evolutions that exist
within a perpetual Universe.

Above is a rearrangement to
better illustrate

the mystic of the
Right Triangle DEF.

Extend Line DE,
at both ends, by making
Lines AC and BC, equal to Line DG.

Thus, Lines AD and BE equal = x;
and, Line AB = 2x2.  

If x is an integer,
a Pythagorean Triangle, DEF
can be mapped to all integers
greater than x = 1.

For Right Triangle DEF
Hypotenuse DF = 2x2 -2x +
Base DE = 2(x2 - x)
Side EF = 2X -


Extend the Centerline.

Locate Point H the same distance from Point C
as the lengths of Lines AD and BE.

From Point H draw Line HI to the Centerline
such that Line HI is equal to
Lines AC, BC, and DG.

Point J is the same distance,
from the Centerline at Point C
as are the lengths of Lines AD, BE and CH.

Thus, Line CJ equals x,

From Point J, draw a Line JK
perpendicular to Line AB.

Draw Line HL to Line JK
such that Line HL plus Line JL
equals Line AB.

Line JL = x2 -
Line HL = x2 +

in accordance with the

Side2 = Hypotenuse2 - Base2

i.e. (Line JL)S2 = (Line HL)H2 - (Line HJ)(2x)2, or

S2 = H2 - (2x)2, and

S + H = 2x2
(from above construction:
Line HL plus Line JL
equals Line AB)

S = 2x2 - H
Rearranging terms

(2x2 - H)2 = H2 - (2x)2
Substituting for S

4x4 - 4Hx2 + H2 = H2 - 4x2
expanding terms

4x4 - 4Hx2 = - 4x2
combining terms

(Line HL) = x2 + 1
dividing terms by 4x2 and rearranging terms

Solving for
(Line JL)
S2 = H2 - 2x2
(from above construction:
Line HL plus Line JL
equals Line AB)

S2 = (x2 + 1)2 - (2x)2
substituting for H

S2 = x4 + 2x2 + 1 - 4x2
expanding terms

S2 = x4 - 2x2 + 1
combining terms

S(Line JL) = x2 - 1
square root of each side

1 = One = Elliptical Constant = e

Therefore, as stated:
Line JL = x2 -
Line HL = x2 +

For clarity of right Triangles DEF and HJL,
remove the following
construction Lines and Arc.
Arc EV
Line DG
Line HI
Line KL


If x (Lines AD and BE)
is any Integer greater than One

the Triangles DEF and HJL are a related pair
of different Pythagorean Triangles.

Said pair of Pythagorean Triangles can be
mapped to any integer and
are referred to as:

Brunardot Triangles

The simplest relationship for
Brunardot Triangles is that
the short sides (Line EF and Line JH) of
each paired Pythagorean Triangle
 differs from the other by:
the Elliptical Constant,
e equals One.

Note: The Side, Line JL,
and Hypotenuse, Line HL, differ by 2
e ; which
underlies all the Prime Number Pairs.

Hint: Numbers don't define Nature;
Nature defines Numbers (and ALL else).

Energy is dispersed in accordance with the
Inverse Square Law because
Nature sets the angle of dispersion;
not because of mathematics square of the distance.

The "Laws" of physics are all axiomatic
without a First Postulate.

Such First Postulate is the purpose of

The Side and the Hypotenuse
of Triangle HJL
are, respectively,
x2 - e and x2 + e, a difference of 2e,

which accounts, in the Natural World,
where numbers are generated,
for Base 10 Prime Numbers for the infinite,
recurring Pairs,
such as: 1-3-5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 29-31,
37-41, 59-61...137-139...521-523, etc.


For clarity,
remove the following extraneous,
construction Lines and Arc.

Arc EV
Line DG
Line HI
Line KL



If x (Lines AD or BE)
is any Integer greater than One

the triangles are a related pair
of different Pythagorean Triangles.

The pair is referred to as:

Brunardot Triangles

The simplest relationship for
Brunardot Triangles is that
the short sides (Lines EF and JH) of
each paired Pythagorean Triangle
 differs from the other by:
the Elliptical Constant,
e equals One.

Resoloids are three dimensional,
sphere-like oscillations, analogous to
metaphysical "quarks"
that are symbolically represented below by
inscribed circles within Pythagorean Triangles.

Incredibly, a Brunardot Triangle,
which consists of different
Pythagorean Triangles,
has identical Inscribed Circles.


Inscribe Circle nop within PythagoreanTriangle DEF and
Inscribe Circle rst within Pythagorean Triangle HJL.

Radius mn = Radius qr = x -

The radius of a Circle inscribed within a Triangle
equals one-half of the side, a, plus the base, b,
minus the diagonal, c.

(a + b - c)/2

  With Point D and Point E as foci
and Line AB as the Major Diameter
draw an Ellipse.

The Ellipse will go through Point F

as Line DF (2x2-2x+e) + Line EF (2x-e) equals
Line AB, the Major Diameter (2x2).

Said Ellipse is referred to as Ellipse ABF.
With Point H and Point J as foci
and Line AB as the Major Diameter
draw an Ellipse.

The Ellipse will go through Point L

as Line HL (x2+e) + Line JL (x2-e) equals
Line AB, the Major Diameter (2x2).

Said Ellipse is referred to as Ellipse ABL.


The above red blocks
indicate lines that are exactly an
Elliptical Constant
that are larger than another line or lines
(as indicated below).

When the Vector Lines DG and HI
(half the Major Diameter)
are designated
the square of the
Lines AD and BE; the
Elliptical Constant
does not vary from One
regardless of the size or value
of the Ellipse
(Major and Minor Diameters).

Thus; the Elliptical Constant
is the most precise Universal Constant.




The identical inscribed circles
(3-dimensional Resoloids)
are within two
unequal Pythagorean Triangles.

The diameters and radii of
the two identical inscribed circles
are, respectively, equal to the
radius, r, Line
EF, minus e
and the Pulse, P,
Lines AD, BE, CH and CJ minus
x - e = Resoloid radius (Rr) = Line tu

The two don't talk physics much at home, she said.

She's interested in geometrical approaches to
 space and time, and he thinks algebraically.
Image result
"When he starts talking about
(exotic kinds of) algebras,
I just think, 'Yuuuccckk.' "

'A Lot of It's Guesswork' 

Patricia Schwarz (the Official String Theory Web Site) with reference to
her husband John H. Schwarz
Los Angeles Times, November 17, 1999

Pulsoid Theory's
Emergent Ellipsoid,
is three dimensional,
and defined
by its Pulse and Vectors,
which Pulse is
any base 10 integer
greater than One
and less than Infinity
and The Vectors,
which are
1/2 the Major Diameter.

The Emegent Ellipsoid
symbolizes matter
from its emegence
to its dissipation.

The Pulse is a force
that begins with
Dynamic Emergent Separation
at the Infinitesimal
and contiues to complete dissipation at the Infinite.

The infinite and infinitesimal
are congruent,
which phenomenon
is referred to as
Infinite Dynamics;

The Vector
will always be the
square of the Pulse,
which manifests as
Inverse Square Law.


All theories ought to
lend themselves to a
description so simple
that even a child
could understand.

Albert Einstein [1878-1955]
Science News
September 20, 2003, page 186
Since the mathematicians
have invaded the
theory of relativity,
I do not understand it
myself anymore.

Albert Einstein [1878-1955]
Discover Magazine
August 2003




  r (radius) - e = Resoloid diameter (Rd) = Line rs

Salient Structural Parts (SSP) of an Emergent Ellipse

Expressed in x (The perigee of an Orbital Ellipse)

Legend: Orbital Ellipse  (inscribed circle diameter, op)

Description and Symbol


Relation to perigee

Alternate formulas

Elliptical Constant, ε = One

? = F - ε


p – K

foci, f

Points D & E



Key, K (radius circle, nop)


p = K + ε

(r + w – h) / 2ε

Orbital Ellipse (vector, v = major radial, m)

major diameter, M




major radial, m

A-C & B-C



minor diameter, N


SqRt(2x3 – x2)2

SqRt(v2 – s2)2

minor radial, n

C-G & C-M

SqRt(2x3 – x2)

SqRt(v2 – s2)

perigee, p

A-D & B-E


K + ε

vector, v




soliton, s

C-D & C-E

x2 – x

v – p

radius, r


2x - ε

2p – ε

wave, w   ε


2(x2– x)


hypotenuse, h


2(x2 – x) + ε

w + ε

Orbital right triangle check



r2 + w2 – h2 = 0

Key, K (radius of circle nop)


x – ε

(r + w – h) / 2ε

inscribed circle nop diameter


2(x – ε)

r – ε

apogee, a

A-E, B-D

2x2– x

v + s

chord, Major, C


SqRt(x4 + 2x3 – x2)

SqRt(2v2– s2)

Chord2, major, C2


x4 + 2x3– x2

v2 + n2




Legend: Nuclear Ellipse (vector, v = major radial, m)

Description and Symbol


Relation to perigee

Alternate formulas

Elliptical Constant, ε = One

? = F – ε


p – K

foci, soliton-S, fS

Points H & J


Key, K (radius circle, rst)


p = K + ε

(rN + wN – hN) / 2ε

Nuclear Ellipse (vector, v = major radial, m)

major diameter, M




major radial, m

A-C & B-C



minor diameter, N


SqRt(x4– x2)2

SqRt(v2– v)2

minor radial, n

C-I & C-AA

SqRt(x4– x2)

SqRt(v2– v)

perigee-N, pN


x2– x

v – p

vector, v




soliton-N, sN



K + ε

radius-N, rN


x2 ε

v – ε

wave-N, wN



x2 – x

hypotenuse-N, hN


x2 + ε

v + ε

Nuclear right triangle check



rN2 + wN2 – hN2 = 0

Key, K (radius of circle rst)


x – ε

(rN + wN – hN) / 2ε

inscribed circle rst diameter


2(x – ε)

r – ε

apogee-N, aN

A-H, B-J

x² + x

v + x

Chord-N, major, C-N


SqRt(2x4 – x2)

SqRt(2v2 – v)

Chord-N2, major, C-N2


2x4 – x2

2v2 – v


Line AD = x = Perigee
Line CD = x2 - x = Soliton
Line DG = x2 = Vector
Line AE = 2x2 - x = Apogee

The Orbital Ellipse defines the Brunardot Series

The revised Fibonacci Sequence, (rFS)
1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, ...

is a corollary of the more general
Brunardot Series,
2, 2, 4, 6, 10, ...
3, 6, 9, 15, 24, ...
4, 12, 16, 28, 44, ...

The Nuclear Ellipse of an
Emergent Ellipse (EE) defines
the Routine Prime Pairs

The Emergent Ellipse demonstrates
the fundamental importance of
right triangles, base 10 numbers, square roots, vectors, etc.

   The Question is: Why?  
  What, or where, is the Natural source of
numbers and of mathematics itself?

Many scholars believe that
all fundamental mathematical concepts
are "inventions" of mankind.

Nothing can be further from the truth.

The search for the source of mathematics
is to be found in Nature.

Mathematics does not mysteriously describe Nature.
It is Nature that describes mathematics!

And, because mathematical concepts
are so fundamental and ubiquitous,
the search must extend very close to
the beginning, and ending,
of all that exists.

Thus, the importance of the unique,
symbolic Proof of One, which establishes
the First Postulate.


The circles (Resoloids) inscribed within the
two different right triangles
within the two different ellipsoids
of an Emergent Ellipse are identical

A Retro Pulsoid (Anti-Matter Pulsoid) is generated
when the perigee, p, Line AD is less than 2.

The Orbital Ellipse is within
the Nuclear Ellipse when
the perigee, p, is less than 2.

Phi, f, is less than 2 (1.618...).

A Phi Ellipse is an Emergent Ellipse
with a Vector, V, that equals Phi plus
the Elliptical Constant,
which constant equals ONE, 1.


The above Brunardot Series Ellipse and

the Phi Ellipse
demonstrate why the Fibonacci Sequence,
the Golden Ratio, and . . . the soliton
are so ubiquitous throughout the
subatomic and cosmic environment.
The significance of the Emergent Ellipse (EE)
is that it symbolizes a three-dimensional
Emergent Ellipsoid (EEd)
that revolves around the Major Diameter (Line AB).

The Emergent Ellipsoid (EEd)
is referred to as a

Pulsoids are the most fundamental phenomenon
that are generated by the
Dynamic Emergent Separation (DES)
of a Dimensionless Point within a
Dimensionless Sphere.

Neutrinos emerge from Infinity at the infinitesimal
as a consequence of
Dynamic Emergent Separation (DES).

Neutrinos also emerge from traumatic forces of
the most extreme nature where they can
be considered as the most extreme detritus
of Pulse increases as symbolized by
the Pulsoid's perigee, p, which increases

by the Elliptical Constant, e

All Pulsoids have consecutive
integer Pulses (perigee, p)
that generate a Resoloid diameter,
which is an integer
greater than Zero.

Note: Despite Murray Gell-Mann's
metaphysical quark hypotheses,
quantum charges cannot be fractional  ─ 
anymore than a balloon can be fractional.




Pythagorean Triangles are proportional to a
3-4-5 and a 5-12-13 Triangle.

 An Anti-matter Pulsoid is a Pulsoid - which has
a Resoloid diameter of One, the Elliptical Constant, e.

A Resoloid must have a radius that is
a base 10 integer from
One to the Infinite.

A Resoloid can no more be a fraction of an
integer than a balloon can be fractional.

A Resoloid is comparable to
Murray Gell-Mann's improbable,
fractional quarks.

  A Pulse 2 Pulsoid
a Bose-Einstein condensate


A Pulse 2 Pulsoid's Pythagorean Triangles are
both equal and proportional to a 3-4-5 Triangle

The Emergent Ellipse demonstrates
the fundamental relationship between
the Fibonacci Sequence, the Golden Ratio,
Base 10 integers, irrational integers, the
 Pythagorean Theorem, the square root of five,
the Inverse Square Law, and . . . much, much
more to follow.

The above mentioned relationships
are not a curious coincidence of mathematics.
They are all, including mathematics itself,
a simple consequences of Nature!

The Emergent Ellipse is a
symbolic image
of a three-dimensional
Emergent Ellipsoid's cross-section.

The Emergent Ellipsoid symbolizes
a proto atom, often referred to as
"dark" matter, which manifests as
the long sought fabric of space, source
of gravitational "attraction"
(actually, gravitational compression);
and is, the First Postulate of existence
from which all is created.

All is inclusive of such as:
mathematics, philosophic logic,
the Cosmos, and living and non-living
manifestations of evolution.

The Golden Ratio, the Fibonacci Sequence, and every other property of the Emergent Ellipsoid's oscillations are found at every scale of the Universe that is fundamentally observable; or, reliably detectable from inference.  Thus, it is difficult to conclude any thing other than the Pulsoid (symbolized by the Emergent Ellipsoid) is very near the First Postulate of The Theory of Everything (ToE).

The evolution from the Pulsoid's beginning to its recyclable ending resolves most of the enigmas of Science, Theology, and Philosophy.  Thus, Philogic. IPSO Facto!

  There is very little value in any
Theory of Everything (ToE)
that cannot clearly explain the
locus of the Universe, the Natural source of
numbers/mathematics; and also, propose a
First Postulate that manifests as both
the simplest and most complex.

All meaningful
resides in grand

The non-intuitive concepts of
Infinite Dynamics
and problems that require that
similar oscillations (the same charge)
must be attractive were first proposed to
 Philip Morrison, Cornell University, in 1955,
as the Unified Concept, which was quite similar
to the subsequent "String" theory;
and much later, in early 1991, explained
as Pulsoid Theory to Mario Rabinowitz,
at  the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
while discussing Cold Fusion Research.

Mario subsequently assisted with
several important explanations that
concerned concepts of
modern, esoteric, theoretical physics;
such as, "spin" and other anomalies.

In the Spring of 1994, thanks to discussions,
on the same day, at Caltech,
with both Kip Thorne and John Schwartz
the current geometry and algebra of
Pulsoid Theory was soon finalized.

Oscillation Theory and Ultimate Relativity
quickly evolved.

During 1970 a similar theory of oscillations
had been introduced by others as
"String Theory" in an overly complex,
impossible attempt to reconcile the
four metaphysical forces of the Standard Model.

The Unified Concept of 1955, over the next 40 years
evolved to Oscillation Theory; and is personally considered to be the beginning of both
String Theory and the Physics 101 phrase
"Paradigm Shift!"
that was a result, in 1955, of my liking
Philip Morrison's using the term "Paradigm."

At the beginning of the Internet Age,
in the early 1990s,
parts of the theory were published at
the author's website:
(domain name lost when a personal server failed)
 and many subsequent websites.  


The first Matter Pythagorean Triangles
are proportional to 3-4-5 and 5-12-13 Triangles,
which proportions are the same for Anti-matter.


The below First 3 Pulsoid images symbolize the oscillations of
Anti-Matter, the Bose-Einstein Condensate, and Dark Matter.

Pulsoids exist when the Salient Structural Parts
are proportional integers such that
a Resoloid has a minimal integer diameter of
the Elliptical Constant.

Thus, the exceptional first Pulsoid's pulse is an ephemeral pulse of 1.5.

With integer pulses of 2, and higher,
all Anti-Matter evolves to a phase of Matter.
Thus, explaining what happens to Anti-Matter.

Another Pulsoid with a non-integer pulse and interesting
   Natural properties has a pulse, with the irrational value of
   the Golden Ratio, (SqRt of 5+e)/2, 1.61803..., which requires
   further investigation.
        See: the Phi, f ellipsoid.







Strange Stars Pulsate According
to the "Golden Ratio"

"Scholars have seen the golden ratio in nautilus shells, the Parthenon, da Vinci paintings and now in stars. A new study of variable stars observed by the Kepler space telescope found four stars that pulsate at frequencies whose ratio is near the irrational number 0.61803398875, known as the Greek letter phi, or the golden ratio (which is also sometimes referred to as the inverse of that number, 1.61803398875…).
The golden ratio had not turned up in the celestial sphere before astronomer John Linder of The College of Wooster in Ohio and his colleagues analyzed the Kepler data. The researchers looked at a class of stars called RR Lyrae that are known for their variability. Unlike the sun, which shines at a near constant brightness (a good thing for life on Earth!), these stars brighten and dim as their atmospheres expand and contract due to periodic pressure changes. Each star pulses with a primary frequency and also shows smaller brightness fluctuations occurring on a secondary frequency. The ratios between these two frequencies “are very important,” says astronomer Róbert Szabó of the Konkoly Observatory in Hungary, who was not involved in the study, “because they are characterized by the inner structure of stars—and if a star exhibits many modes, then observation of the frequencies gives very strict constraints to stellar models.” For four of the six RR Lyrae stars the researchers analyzed, the ratio of the primary to secondary frequencies was near the golden mean—within 2 percent of its value in the case of the star KIC 5520878, for example."

               Scientific American, February 9, 2015.  -- By Clara Moskowitz




Spin is one of the more challenging
aspects of quantum mechanics


Tini Circle Groups demonstrate that
Integer Circle curvature can begin with
any integer curvature (the reciprocal of the radius);
and, continue endlessly to the Infinite.

Thus, said curvature has
fractal behavior such that there
is never "space"
that can be "empty."

There can be nothing simpler, that exists,
than the fractal behavior of
a compressed Pulsoid's locus.

Tini is a neologism/acronym for
Tangent, Infinity Integer.

Such sphere packing of Tini Circle Groups
symbolizes the Pulsoidal Fabric of Space.

The Tini Circles symbolize
 Emergent Ellipsoids.

Pockets of the Fabric of Space
literally explode
at Critical Compression (CrC).


One observation of these explosions
is referred to as Quasars
that evolve to Galaxies.

Another observation is referred to as
Gamma-ray Bursts
that also occur at Critical Compression (CrC)
when smaller amounts of "space" are involved.

Critical Compression (CrC),
a common, local, continuous phenomena
is the closest to a "Big Bang" that can
be found anywhere within the Universe.

Weisstein, Eric W. "Descartes Circle Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DescartesCircleTheorem.html

a² + b² + c² + d² = (a + b + c + d)² / 2


Tini Circle Grups  OUT

Brunardot Groups (BG)
Tini Cirt 1h with Tini Cirts: 2:1s, 3:1s, 4:1s, ad infinitum


Think Dark Matter;
and, expelled Resoloids
at Critical Compression (Atoms & Quarks)

Integer values
for the letters A thru G, below,
can be generated by any Natural integer.

All circular curvatures (reciprocals of the radius) are Natural integers.

For every Natural integer, there is at least one;
and often, many arrays that are all never ending.

Can you calculate the
Natural integer arrays and
all their branches (corollaries)?

All curvatures are a simple algebraic function of the
preceding array’s
Natural integer curvature.

There are two categories of Tini Circle Groups (TCG):
symmetrical and asymmetrical.

There are three types of asymmetrical
Tini Circle Groups (TCG): single, dual, and hylotron.

All four of the various groups can be inserted within
any circle of any other category or type of TCG.

All TCGs (of external circles) are uniquely described by
the largest two circles of the group; and, when necessary,
an alpha character designation is added for the type.

The term for uniquely defining a Tini Circle Group is
Tini Cirt (Tangent Infinity Circle Term).

An example of a Tini Cirt is: 8
:5a, which describes
the large outer circle's integer curvature as 8; and
the largest inner circle as 13 (8
+ 5); and,
the category is asymmetrical..

All the following circles’ integers, to Infinity,
are set by the first two circles’ curvatures; and,
all integer circle curvatures are
calculated with simple, algebraic arrays.

Of course, internal tangent circles
are independent of the outer arrays.

Thus, internally and externally, every circle
can have every space
from the infinitesimal to
filled with a circle that has
integer for its curvature.

The equation for four tangent circles is:
a² + b² + c² + d² = (a + b + c + d)² / 2
where a, b, c, and d are the circle curvatures.

One must ask: With four variables,
why is there only
Natural integers
when the involved 
complex equation has
four variables to factor
and square roots that must be divided?

Then, imagine that the symbolic packed circles are
spheroids in the manner of pulsing Pulsoids ...!

Why ?
And, again,
Why ?
And, again,
Why ?
Over and over,
until . . . Infinity.

"Truth lies with simplicity,                
        which is Nature's signature."


For formulas of Tini Circle Groups' Tangent Circles see: Tangent Circles   


C2 = 2V2


A corollary of the Brunardot Theorem
is the
Pythagorean Theorem: c2 = a2 + b2

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  Pulsoid Theorem

revised Fibonacci Sequence (rFS)
EC equals One

Brunardot Series (BS)

Golden Ratio (GR)
N1 = Perigee/Pulse = x = EC
N2 = Soliton = x2 - x
N3 = Vector = x2
N4 = Apogee = 2x2 - x

Natural Function (NF)
NF = Soliton = x2 - x
NF3, NF2, NF1, 0, +1, +NF2, +NF3, +NF4
demonstrates the equivalence of Zero and One
on the numeral placeholder scale

Tini Cirts
Tini Circle Groups (TCG)


  Definition of Ellipse the vector equals half the Major Diameter
The radius plus the hypotenuse equals the Major Diameter
An BE the Perigee squared equals the vector
 S Phi Ellipse
And a B



The revised Fibonacci Sequence,
Golden Ratio, Concept of Zero,

Pairs of Primes, Natural Function, Base 10
(Source of numbers when
Dark Matter and PEP discussed)

The first postulate of Philogic is a concept that
has no beginning or ending.
It is the Singularity, often referred to herein as
either Infinity or the duality of Infinity.

Throughout anthropic history the concept of
the Singularity has been the subject of
much semantic confusion because of
the difficulty of defining something beyond
the Reality of our existence.

An imaginable starting point is to imagine
a dimensionless point within a dimensionless sphere.

With apologies to Alfred Korzybski.

Resoloidal and Pulsoidal oscillations s/b 11 oscillations.
Rn and Dn; Ro and Do (lowercase is a subscript)

Add Einstein's Relativity to HUP, PEP, et al.


  The Natural Source of:
Numbers, Base 10, the Golden Ratio; and,
the General Series for
the Fibonacci Sequence
 the General Theorem from which
the Pythagorean Theorem is derived;
the Equivalence of Zero and One;
and, much, much more;
such as: where anti-matter went,
the locus of the Universe,
the Duality of Infinity,
a unification of the concepts of theoretical physics, etc. etc.

Pulsoid Theorem (
v = εP²)

Resoloids form when SSP are stable.

Complex, Analog, Self-Adjustment (CASA)

An explanation of "Time,"
which is quite simple;
yet, unexplainable
within the confused structure of
academic, theoretical physics
that relies upon
Einstein's General Relativity (EGR)
by closely linking "Time" to EGR's
explanation of space.

  (Scientific American, 2-11-2015:
"A Matter of Time: It begins, it ends, it's real, it's an illusion.
It's the ultimate paradox.")




Line AD is
twice line UF minus epsilon,



By definition,
line BA equals
line BD plus epsilon,



If line BU equals epsilon, ε, One, 1,
then, line UF equals
the Golden Ratio, Phi,



The revised Fibonacci sequence is
the first Brunardot Series sequence
if x equals epsilon,
P  (1,  0,  1,  1,  2,  3,  5,  8,  13...)



If the second integer value
Brunardot Series sequence:
2, 2, 4, 6...
is applied to the
perigee, p, soliton, s,
vector, v, and apogee, o
of a Brunardot Ellipse (BE)
the following integers, i,
are generated:
1,  2 , 3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,
where 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 are, respectively, epsilon,
e; radius, r; hypotenuse, h;
line EI (perigee plus hypotenuse); and,
the major diameter, M.



If the soliton, s, of
a Brunardot Ellipse (BE)
, equals
e, One, 1,

then, the perigee, p, equals
the Golden Ratio, Phi,
Φ, which is:
half the sum of :
the square root of 5 plus
e, One, 1.



.."Seek simplicity; and
....... . . Natural integers."

..........Challenge to Academe
...The Purpose of Pulsoid Theory

....c² = 2v² – s²......v = εP²


Please ask questions
With questions it’s possible to know if
comments are logical and convincing;
or whether clarification is required.




  "We are struggling to find clear indications that can point us in the right direction. Some people see in this state of crisis a source of frustration. I see a source of excitement because new ideas have always thrived in moments of crisis." - Gian Giudice, head of the Theory Department at CERN.  



 Philogic: Discipline of Ultimate Relativity   
 Enigmas & Theoretical Errors of "Modern" Physics   
 A Challenge to Academe (revised 2008)     
 Proof of One   
 The Mystique of One   
 Brunardot Triangles   
 Prime Number Pairs   
 Resoloids (Res)     
 Emergent Ellipses     
 CASA: Complex, Analog Self-Adjustment     
 Pulsoid Theory (PT) Ellipsoid     
 Infinity (I)   
 Inverse Square Law (ISL)   
 Salient Structural Parts (SSP)   
 The Brunardot Series (BS) Ellipse   


 Bose-Einstein Condensate  -----


 First 3 Pulsoids to Scale   

A Pulse 3 vs. Pulse 30 Pulsoid to Scale

Phi Pulsoid (decimals)

Phi Pulsoid (symbols)


 Tini Circle Groups     

Formula for tangent curvature of 4 circles



Dark Matter and Expelled Resoloids


 The Brunardot Theorem   


 The LOCUS of the UNIVERSE     
 The PROOF of ONE   
 The revised FIBONACCI SEQUENCE     

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  
 = Incomplete  = "Click" Ball for a Direct Subject link to the Interet  
  Affiliate and Sponsoring websites
  Big Bang, The - Did It Bang?
Bjerknes Hydrodynamic Forces, Carl Anton
    Bjerknes forces involved in vortex bonds  
    Brunardot Gravitons (BG)  
    Brunardot Series Ellipse (BS), The  
    Brunardot Theorem (C2=2V2-s2)  
  Challenge to Academe, A (revised 2008)
  Complex Analog Self-Adjustment (CASA)
  Contact Information
  Critical Compresion (CrC)
  Curvature of 4 Tangent Circles, Formula for
  Gamma-ray Bursts
Gell-Mann, Murray
  General Relativity, Einstein's
Gödel, Kurt
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems  
    Golden Ratio (GR),  Natural Source of  
    Golden Ratio (GR),  Phi Ellipsoid  
    Golden Ratio (GR),  RR Lyrae Stars Pulse  
  Incompleteness Theorems, Gödel's
  Infinite Dynamics
  Infinity's Duality
  Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS), Princeton, N.J.
  Inverse Square Law, The (ISL)
Morrison, Philip
  Mystique of One, The
  Natural Function, The (NF)
  "Nature defines Numbers"
  Please Ask Questions
Prandtl, Ludwig
  Prime Number Pairs
  Proof of One (PoO)
  Pulse 1.5 Pulsoid, A
  Pulse 2 Pulsoid, A
    Pulse 3 Pulsoid, A  
  Pulse 30 Pulsoid, A
  Pulse 100 Pulsoid, A
  Pulses 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 to Scale
  Pulsoid, A
  Pulsoid Theorem (v=eP2)
    Pulsoid Theory, The purpose of  
    Pulsoid Theory (PT) Ellipsoid  
    Pulsoid Theory is . . .  
    Pythagorean Triangles mapped to any integer  
    Quintessence (Dark Energy, scalar field)  
Rabinowitz, Mario
  Rabinowitz, Mario: author, The Little Lady that Could...
  Relativity, Infinty, Proof of One (RIP)
    Resoloids (Res)  
  Salient Oscillations, Symbolized by lines
  Salient Structural Parts, Emergent Ellipse (SSP)
  Scale of 5 Pulsoids
  Singularity, The
  "Spin" of Subatomic Particles
    Something moves, Nothing happens until  
    Space-Time, The Fabric of  
    Spinors in three dimensions (See: General remarks)  
    Tini Circle Groups (TCG)  
    Ultimate Relativity  
  Under Construction
  Uni-Pulse Theory
  "Unraveling all of Nature's enigmas"
Veblen, Thorstein Quotes (Author of "The Theory of Leisure")
  Weinberg, Steven  

  Zero and One, The equivalence of
        = "Click" Ball for a Direct link to the Interet
         = Incomplete
Reviews of alt-codes.net

 ALL Below is under Construction

 As Well as some of the above Content :)

with Content Added in
a Timely Manner

"Click" the "under Construction"
image, above, for more information
or to request specific information.

 German Translation of Philogic website

 Japanese Translation of Philogic website


— ————————— —

X:Word/The Brunardot Theorem/PoO1eb.pdf

www.SuperStringTheory.com/index.html   Patricia Schwarz, author



“The origin and geometry of an ellipsoid (Pulsoid) underlies
the numbers of Mathematics . . . and much, much more.”


Draw Line HK, equal to Line HM + Line LV,
from Point H to an intersection with Line

In accordance with the
Pythagorean Theorem
Side2 + Base2 = Hypotense2

Line HK = x2 +

For clarity of right Triangles CHM and HIK,
remove the below
construction Lines and Arcs.

Arc WX  ??
Line FL  ??
Line FZ  ??
  !PHi/images/POc-11dMaster.gif (968w x 1024h)




 Website translation Your Comments Go to

Table of










Loading progress spinners    Reboot in progress 

A layman's interesting resource, Channel 64

Pulsoid Theory Table of Contents/Index with a Pinned Note

REFERS to 2006(???) PhysicsMathForums.com Page Under Construction


  "Fabric of the Cosmos" Brian Greene, 2004: Menu @ D21

Space-time is not as explained by Einstein's General Relativity (EGR)




1.701219269 662 k
1.699512031 1166 l
1.700087272 956 m
1.700045529 1166 n
1.699994491 956 o
1.700021317 870 p
1.700015954 1086 q
1.700015036 870 r






epsilon = ONE = 1


AB Major Diameter
M 2x2 2v
DE Minor Diameter N 2SqRt(v2 - s2) 2n
AC, BC, FL+GL Major Radial m, v x2 v
CD Minor Radial n SqRt(v2 - s2)  
AD Major Chord C SqRt(v2 - n2)  
F, G, H, I foci f    
AF, GB perigee, Pulse p, P x  
CF, CG soliton, Natural Function s, NF x2 - x v - p
DF vector v x2  
AG, BF apogee a 2x2 - x  
GL radius r 2x - 1  
FG wave w 2x2 - 2x  
FL hypotenuse h 2x2 - 2x + 1 w + 1
nop Resoloid (inscribed circle) R    
pq Resoloid radius Rr, Key, K x - 1 (r + w - h)/2
no Resoloid diameter Rd 2(x - 1) r + w - h
Resoloid Ratio M/Rd x2/(x - 1)  
CM AC, BC, IK+HK Major Radial      
CM Minor Radial nn SqRt(v2 - P2)  
BM Major Chord Cn SqRt(v2 - nn2)  
CH, CI Pulse pn, Pn x  
AH, BI soliton, Natural Function s, NF x2 - x v - P
IM vector v x2  
AI, BH apogee an x2 + x v + P
HK radius rn x2 - 1  
HI wave wn 2x  
IK hypotenuse hn x2 + 1 w + 1
pq, tu radius inscribed circle fn x  - 1 (rn + wn - hn)/2
no, rs diameter inscribed circle gn 2(x - 1) r - 1, rn + w n- hn

Ridiculous Pomo Physics Speak

ics Colloquium
Friday, February 4, 2000
4:00 PM
Physics Building, Room 204
Note special time.
Eugene Kolomeisky [Host: Joseph Poon]
University of Virginia
"Breaking a one-dimensional chain: fracture in 1 + 1 dimensions"
The breaking rate of an atomic chain stretched at zero temperature by a constant force can be calculated in a quasiclassical approximation by finding the localized solutions ("bounces") of the equations of classical dynamics in imaginary time. We show that this theory is related to the critical cracks of stressed solids, because the world lines of the atoms in the chain form a two-dimensional crystal, and the bounce is a crack configuration in (unstable) mechanical equilibrium. Thus the tunneling time, Action, and the breaking rate in the limit of small forces are determined by the classical results of Griffith. For the limit of large forces we give an exact bounce solution that describes the quantum fracture and classical crack close to the limit of mechanical stability. This limit can be viewed as a critical phenomenon for which we establish a Levanyuk-Ginzburg criterion of weakness of fluctuations, and propose a scaling argument for the critical regime. The post-tunneling dynamics is understood by the analytic continuation of the bounce solutions to real time.


———————— — — — —

Blind belief in authority is the greatest enemy of truth.  A.E.


A.E. quote: "School (University) failed me, and I failed the school. It bored me. The teachers behaved like Feldwebel (sergeants). I wanted to learn what I wanted to know,
but they wanted me to learn for the exam. What I hated most was the competitive system there,  and especially sports.
Because of this, I wasn't worth anything, and several times they suggested I leave."    I regret I missed meeting Einstein by one day!!!   P. FG.





By Rachel Feltman and Matthew R. Francis

October 04, 2017


Cosmologists used to think the universe was totally timeless: no beginning, no end. That might sound mind-melting, but it’s easier on the scientific brain than figuring out what a set starting point would mean, let alone when it would be. So some physicists have cooked up alternative cosmological theories that make time’s role seem a little less important. The concepts are as trippy as those black-light posters you had in college. Wait a minute…

Flowers of the multiverse

The main reason some physicists obsess over the beginning of the universe is because so much evidence points to there being one. But what if our universe grooved within an ageless multiverse—like a patch of ground from which countless flowers bloom. In this model, each universe has a big bang and keeps its own time. In the most popular version, each universe might even have its own version of physics too. Infinite possibilities yield infinite results: Some say this theory explains life itself.


We’d have to be extremely lucky for a single big bang to create a universe with the perfect conditions for life as we know it, but if new universes are springing up all the time, it’s no wonder one of those cosmic neighborhoods turned out just like ours. The universes in this garden grow or wither according to their own rules, while the multiverse around them goes on without a beginning or an end. It’s an elegant blend of change and timelessness, a floral brew many cosmologists are still sipping.

The smooth operator

Some variations on the big bang go down a little smoother than the original. In the simplest version, the beginning of time is a sharp point, where everything we currently observe was mashed into a ball of energy smaller than an atom—then burst outward, duh. But what came before? Physicists such as Stephen Hawking tried to restore a kind of timelessness by getting rid of that starting point, imagining a universe with no clear “bang.” You can wind back the clock to the edges of those first moments of existence, but asking what came before would be like asking why you can keep walking north when you get to the North Pole. Time, as we define it, loses its meaning as the universe shrinks down.


It never quite narrows to a single point. But no one has proved physics works like that—yet.


Steady state

The big bang posits that the universe exploded into existence and is still booming outward. So to throw out the bang, you must explain why we can see galaxies shooting off into the distance. In 1948, astronomers Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle got around the problem by imagining the universe as a constant display of dazzling fireworks, with new matter bursting into existence everywhere, at every moment. In the steady-state model, it looks like the cosmos is growing, but change is just an illusion, man.


The universe is literally spacing out, yeah, but it’s not because of some single original event. It’s because the universe is constantly creating new matter, and that new matter pushes the older stuff out into the beyond. But the discovery of microwave radiation left over from the big bang during the 1960s cooked this idea—the theory couldn’t explain away that afterglow.

The collision

Why does a big bang have to be a beginning? Paul Steinhardt and collaborators propose that there are bangs bangin’ all the time, as our universe rattles around in a fifth dimension (whoa) our puny minds cannot even perceive. All of space and time as we know it sits on a four-dimensional surface called a brane. Sometimes it collides with another universe’s brane, and the smash creates bursts of energy we know as the big bang—energy still detectable as cosmic background radiation. As the universes move farther and farther apart in the fifth dimension, our cosmos expands. The cycles of collision and separation go on forever in a psychedelic dance. Many cosmologists don’t think we’ll ever find proof of this fifth dimension, but the idea that the big bang isn’t the real beginning has no end in sight.


This article was originally published in the September/October 2017 Mysteries of Time and Space issue of Popular Science







11-5-17 12:05 am











By definition:
The theory of Reality,
its principles,
and its corollaries,
must be simple.

The most simple is the most complex;
thus . . . the most complex must be
the most simple.

Therefore, by definition:
Simply . . .
The simplest is the most complex.

"Great things are done by a series of small things brought together."
Vincent Van Gogh

Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/vincent_van_gogh_120866

Nature is the source of all true knowledge.
She has her own logic, her own laws,
she has no effect without cause nor invention without necessity."

Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/authors/leonardo_da_vinci

Nature never breaks her own laws."
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/leonardo_da_vinci_380287

"Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication."
Leonardo Da Vinci
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Albert Einstein was also living at Princeton during this time. Gödel and Einstein developed a strong friendship, and were known to take long walks together to and from the Institute for Advanced Study. The nature of their conversations was a mystery to the other Institute members. Economist Oskar Morgenstern recounts that toward the end of his life Einstein confided that his "own work no longer meant much, that he came to the Institute merely ... to have the privilege of walking home with Gödel".